Myomas are benign tumoral structures that develop in smooth muscle tissue that can be seen in the uterus and cervix.
Although the word tumor is associated with cancer in all human beings, all of the benign, malignant or malignant lesions in the body are medically called tumor or tumoral structures.
Myomas are the most common tumors in the female pelvis and may vary in size from hazelnut grain to basketball size.
Approximately 25 of every 100 women can have small or large, few or multiple myomas with or without symptoms. It is rarely seen in adolescence during the 35-45 age group. The incidence of menopause decreases.
The exact cause of the myomas is unknown. But; estrogen hormone (female hormone) is thought to lead to the growth of myomas. Also; especially in the family of first-degree relatives, such as parents, sisters, siblings or grandmothers, the need for further development is high.
Subserous fibroids (in the outer layer of the uterus)
Intramural myomas (middle layer of the uterus)
Submucous fibroids (in the inner layer of the uterus)
The myomas don’t usually have symptoms. They are incidentally detected during routine gynecological examinations. But; most of the time they can give the following findings in proportion to growth;
Excessive amount of menstruation
Anemia due to too much bleeding
Bleeding after sexual intercourse
Intermediate bleeding between menstruation
Large fibroids constipation by pressing the intestines
Abdominal growth or swelling
Pain during menstruation or sexual intercourse
Infertility in the fibroids that cover the mouths of the tubes or the uterus
Repetitive abortions in the fibroids that prevent the fertilized egg from being buried in the uterus
Risk of developing cancer in some myomas (1 / 10,000)
Diagnosis of myoma is easy. A gynecological evaluation (examination and ultrasound) performed in a woman with typical symptoms makes a diagnosis of 99% accuracy. On examination, the uterus is typically large and irregular. Sometimes it may be difficult to distinguish large fibroids from the masses of the ovaries, in which case MR may be required.
Myomas are usually small and do not require treatment because they do not cause complaints. Nevertheless, those who have significant symptoms, those that are large enough to affect fertility, or those that can be confused with cancer or other malignant tumors, require treatment. Complaints and rapidly growing myomas should be surgically removed. The surgical method to be selected depends on the patient’s age, social status, child desire, type and severity of complaints. According to these factors, complete removal of the uterus, hysterectomy or removal of myomectomy is preferred. Nowadays, these operations are performed with closed surgery LAPAROSCOPY. Uterine artery embolization (UAE) is an alternative treatment modality for some appropriate myomas. Enter the main artery passing through the groin on the leg. The catheter is administered to the womb from the uterine artery, which is used in women who do not want pregnancy.