Conjoined twins are single amnion marsupial (monoamniotic) and single-cord (monochorionic) identical twins, which are the twins developed as a result of the failure of complete fertilization of the fertilized egg after organogenesis.
According to the division stage, babies are adhered to each other from different regions and varying degrees. Sometimes they even develop an organ. Because they are identical twins, their sex is always the same.
Conjoined twins are seen in 40,000 births. However, live births are one of every 200,000 live births. Because most of them are detected during the pregnancy process, they can be released or spontaneously result in death in the uterus.
It is seen more often in girls than in boys. Genetic and environmental factors have been blamed on the factors involved, but no proven evidence has been found.
There are no triple or quadruplet cases reported to date.
When Chang and Eng were born in Siam in 1811, they were connected to each other by a band of meat in the lower part of their breasts and their livers were united. They lived a simple life with their mother until they were 17 years old. In 1229, they accepted Captain Coffin’s trip to the United States and went to America with special permission from the King of Siam. Chang and Eng, who were introduced as Siamese double boys, attended the performances by the captain’s manager. At one point, the twins who were to England were exhibited to the nobles and were introduced to many members of the royal family.
During their travels, they were subjected to medical experiments in order to understand the situation and the possibility of surgical separation. During the tour, they returned to America when they were not accepted to France because they would give birth to similar babies. At the age of 28 they bought a farm in North Carolina and began to deal with agriculture. In 1840, U.S. Pat. citizenship. In 1843, they married Adelaide Yates and two sisters, Sarah Anne. For the next 31 years, he had 21 children. When the health of the twins, who returned to the world of show again in the 1850s, began to deteriorate, they returned to the United States in 1870.
On January 17, 1874, the Eng awoke at midnight with a strange feeling, and noticed that his brother Chang was dead. He died a few hours later. After a few weeks his trunks were brought to Philadelphia and an autopsy was performed. As a result, it was understood that Chang died from a clot on his brain vessels. It was not clear at the time why Eng died right after Chang’s death. Some physicians claimed that they died of fear. Yet today we know that Eng died due to bleeding. Eng’s blood caused the death of Eng in the dead body of Chang.
Cahng and Eng have changed the way society looks at conjoined twins and physically different individuals. Twins have proven that individuals with varying ages may also have normal lives, jobs and healthy families. Chang and Eng gained the terminology of medical terminology “Siamese twins, conjoined twins”.
One of the oldest adherent twin cases is Mary and Eliza Chulkhurst, also known as Biddenden Maids. In the year 1100, babies born in England lived for 34 years in this way. The girls adhering to the hips and shoulders were probably the “pyopagus” conjoined twins. Upon the death of one of the siblings, doctors hope to allow the other brother a chance to survive by surgical removal of the trunks and he died a few hours later.
French surgeon Ambroise Pare, who lived in the 16th century, thought that conjoined twins were against the rules of nature, and he had put forward different theories to explain this abnormal situation. To him, conjoined twins reflected God’s anger, Satan’s possession, God’s will to show power. Again, according to Pare, the woman dressed very tightly during pregnancy, womb small or improperly sitting in this strange situation was caused.
Unfortunately unexplained conjoined twins have been humiliated throughout history, excluded, excommunicated and sometimes even used in circus performances.
Conjoined twins are named and classified according to the region of the adherence. A terminology from the Greek word “pagos” is used.
Not including heart or core
Craniopagus: Merger is in the head area. Consists of 2% of conjoined twins
Pygopagus: Coupling from the neck (seen at 19%)
Midline connections (always includes hubs)
Thoracopagus: Adhesion from the upper half of the chest (from the chest). It is the most common shape and almost always shares a heart two baby partners.
Cephalopagus: It is extremely rare. The upper half of the body is adherent.